Программа ДВФЭЗ по снижению риска отравления свинцом

Environmental Lead Contamination in the Rudnaya Pristan – Dalnegorsk Mining and Smelter District, Russian Far East

Margrit C. von Braun,*  Ian H. von Lindern,†Nadezhda K. Khristoforova,‡Anatoli H. Kachur,‡
PavelV.Yelpatyevsky,‡Vera P. Elpatyevskaya,‡and SusanM. Spalinger*

 *Environmental Science and Engineering Programs, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844; TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering Inc., 121S. Jackson St., Moscow, Idaho, 83843; and Pacific Geographical Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Vladivostok, Russia

 A preliminary survey of a remote mining and smelting region of the Russian Far East (RFE) indicates significant soil lead contamination and a high probability of childhood lead poisoning. Lead concentrations in residential gardens (476-4310 mg/kg, G_x = 1626 mg/kg) and in roadside soils (2020-22900mg/kg, G_x = 4420 mg/kg) exceed USEPA guidance for remediation. Preliminary biokinetic estimates of mean blood levels suggest that preschool children are at significant risk of lead poisoning from soil/dust ingestion with levels predicted to average 13-27 mg/dl. Samples of other pathways, such as air, water, paint, interior dust, and garden produce, and pediatric and occupational blood lead levels are needed. An assessment of the industry’s ability to improve emissions controls and materials handling should also be undertaken. Global lessons in remediating contamination problems and preventing childhood lead poisoning must be applied in innovative ways to meet the logistical, social, and economic challenges in the RFE. © 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

Environmental conditions in the Rudnaya River watershed – a compilation of Soviet and post-Soviet era sampling around a lead smelter in the Russian Far East

Anatoly N. Kachur 1, Valentina S. Arzhanovaa, 1, Pavel V. Yelpatyevskya, 1, Margrit C. von Braun c, 2

a Pacific Geographical Institute, Far East Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, 7 Radio Street, Vladivostok 690041, Russia
b Environmental Science and Engineering Programs, University of Idaho, Morrill Hall 207, Moscow, ID 83844-3006, USA
c TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering, Inc., 121 S. Jackson Street, Morrill Hall 207, Moscow, ID 83843, USA

The Rudnaya River valley in the Russian Far East contains a rich reserve of lead, zinc and boron and has been mined for nearly 100 years. Environmental contamination related to the area's mines and lead smelter was studied for over 30 years during the Soviet era, by members of the Pacific Geographic Institute (PGI). Due to government restrictions, much of the sampling focused on contamination of the river, the air, forests, vegetation, agricultural products and soil. Source-specific samples, such as stack emissions from the smelter, and blood lead levels from the residents and smelter workers could not be obtained or were classified as State secrets. However, the data do describe the extent and severity of the environmental contamination and related public health concerns. Water discharged from the smelter averages 2900 m3/day (containing 100 kg of lead (Pb) and 20 kg of arsenic (As)) and leachate from area mine dumps and other industrial processes contaminates the Rudnaya River. Annual air emissions include 85 tonnes of particulates (containing 50 tonnes of Pb and 0.5 tonnes of As) and 250 000 m3 of gases high in sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Vegetative stress is severe and much of this area is denuded. Pb and other metals in agricultural products suggest local produce may be dangerous for human consumption, although it is a major food source for the community. Public and occupational health indicators of basophilic stippling, respiratory disease and hair lead levels further suggest the severity of the problem. Although, descriptions of complete methodologies and procedures are often lacking, these data describe how sampling was conducted during the Soviet era and document a site with severe heavy metals contamination, especially lead, and the likelihood of related public health problems. They are relevant today as investigators employ state-of-the-art-sampling techniques and explore cleanup options under a new governmental system and challenging economic times. In the post-Soviet era, a Russian/US team sampled area soils and dusts and confirmed the severity of the environmental problems using commonly employed sampling and analysis techniques. Lead concentrations in residential gardens (476–4310 mg/kg,) and in roadside soils (2020–22 900 mg/kg) exceed USEPA guidance for remediation. Preliminary biokinetic estimates of mean blood levels (average 13–27 μg/dl) suggest pre-school children are at significant risk of lead poisoning from soil/dust ingestion. Today, the PGI, in cooperation with the industrial owners and the local health and environmental authorities, is attempting to establish long-term monitoring and pollution abatement within the constraints of their difficult economic situation.